Working Memory Profile of individuals with DS
Case Study 1
David is a ten-year-old boy who is diagnosed with Down syndrome. David’s class is learning about different species in different environments. His teacher has asked him to identify an animal that lives in a cold climate. David is able to point to the correct answer, however when his teacher asks him to respond verbally he is not able to formulate the correct response.
A fun and exciting time in class for David is story time. The students are required to re-tell stories they have read to their classmates. David has a good understanding and comprehension of the stories he has read as shown in his writing. Frustrations arise when he is asked to repeat and verbalize those same stories. Although he has not forgotten the content his inability to verbalize effectively causes him distress.
Though he tries hard to keep up with his class, he often fails to complete the instructions that the teacher gives them. David shows his good results when his teacher repeats the instructions slowly and gives him extra time to complete the tasks.
The working memory profile of a child with DS can be very varied, but research has established some patterns that can guide the way we teach and support their learning. One common pattern is a verbal working memory deficit – children with DS experience greater difficulty in remembering verbal information. Do they have difficulty in encoding information (getting information in) or with recalling information (getting information out)? One view is that it is linked to how they encode information. David’s struggle in carrying out the teacher’s instructions may be linked to his difficulty in encoding the information when he first heard it.
Children with DS can also experience difficulty in recalling information. Their errors are unique in that they don’t usually forget words when they are talking, however they incorrectly repeat words. This is evidenced in David’s response during story time – while children with general learning difficulties would have forgotten the story, David would kept repeating words when retelling the story. What are the implications of this in the classroom? Verbal memory is an important skill that we use to learn new words, as well as the complexity of language and conversation. Deficits in this area are linked to poor language acquisition and communication.
Sometimes recall deficits stem from speech rate – slower speech rate is linked with worse verbal memory. The longer it takes a child with learning difficulties to repeat or rehearse some information, the more likely they are to forget it. However, children with DS have normal speech rate – research has established that it is not typically slower than their peers.
Where does their difficulty lie then? It may be in how they are asked to recall information – when they can point to an answer their perform much better than when they have to provide a verbal response. Consider David when he was learning about animals in cold climates – he was able to answer accurately when he could avoid using language and could point instead.
Full article is published in: Special Children Magazine: Issue 230 May - Jun 2016
Ronald McDonald is more easily recognized than Superman– but is this a good thing?
A survey of 3-5 year-olds found that they recognized 5x more corporate brand logos (like Starbucks, Superman, Batman, Shell, Toyota, Disney, McDonalds, Nike, Apple and Pepsi ) compared to nature pictures (like a white tailed deer, a coyote, the Alberta Wild Rose and a Peregrine Falcon.)
Research has shown that children younger than 8, are cognitively and psychologically defenseless against advertising.
WHY? Young children usually accept advertising claims at face value. In fact, the American Federal Trade Commission concluded it was unfair and deceptive to advertise to children younger than 6, but in practice it is hard to implement this.
What can parents do?
1) Talk to your child –this helps develop critical thinking –
· Ask them what they liked about an ad – was it the colors, the music, the characters?
· Ask them how the ad made them feel – happy, excited?
· Then ask your child what they liked about the product and why they want it
This process can help them avoid making emotional decisions and instead make more informed and rational decision.
2) Recognize that not all TV watching is negative
In my research I examined the impact of TV watching on vocabulary skills in toddlers (as this represents a critical developmental period). Parents told us the television watching habits of their children in different genres (educational, cartoons, baby DVDs, adult entertainment). Here is what I found:
a) Television did not hurt vocabulary scores
b) But it didn’t help either! More time spent watching educational programs was associated with less time reading factual books.
c) Reading educational books & playing memory boosted vocabulary skills
Often when parents experience stress they show less warmth and comfort to their child. This makes them less attentive and connected to their child’s needs.
In our recent study with Head Start centers in Jax – we found that parental stress affected their child’s behavior. The more stress the parent reported, the more likely the child was to show ADHD-type behaviors, like hyperactivity and inattention.
1. Focus on the Positive
Studies show that keeping a gratitude journal can improve well-being and life-satisfaction. Instead of focusing on the negative behaviors of your child, think of something they did today that made you laugh or smile.
2. See the glass as half full
We surveyed over 4000 people and found that those who had a more optimistic outlook in look were less likely to feel depressed. So instead of feeling negative about a day that didn’t go as planned, think instead of how you will make it better tomorrow.
WATCH In celebration of Memory Day here are 3 memory-related areas that we can boost:
1. SHORT-TERM MEMORY
Short-term memory is the space that you have to hold information for a short time. You can think of it like a holding zone—you won’t keep the information in your short-term memory for long, just long enough till you can transfer the information to a piece of paper, your computer, or even your long-term memory store.
TRY IT: Listen and then repeat these numbers:
Now try it again:
Chunking – or breaking up information into smaller sections- is a great way to remember more
Another tip – Talk fast – Research has found that when we say things quickly, we can remember more information.
2. LONG-TERM MEMORY
Long-term memory is when you have to keep information for a long period of time. Some of this information can be kept for years and years like a memorable birthday; while other memories don’t last more than a week. Think of long-term memory like a library full of books. Some books get read more than others so it is easier to remember which shelf you left them on. With long-term memory, some experiences are better remembered than others because you think about them more.
As we get older one of the first things to go is our long-term memory but we can keep it sharp by keeping information relevant.
TRY IT: In 10 secondS, list as many vegetables as you can
What does this do: These games, known as fluency games, help keep information organized in our brain (this is one of the first things to go in someone with Alzheimer’s )
3. ATTENTION – Sometimes it can be hard to stay alert during a meeting
TRY IT: DOODLE! Grab a pen or pencil and tap into your creative side.
This “doodling effect” keeps your attention from drifting away- so that you still pay attention instead of daydreaming. It is also a great gatekeeper because it doesn’t actually compete for attention resources—doodling doesn’t require much focus or effort—so you can still focus on the task at hand.
Lots of other tips (like doing Jigsaw puzzles, suduko, and spot the difference games) can be found in my book: Training Your Brain For Dummies
Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by difficulties in reading and spelling, despite average levels of intelligence. Individuals with dyslexia also show weakness in phonological awareness, verbal working memory, and processing speed. Younger students with Dyslexia tend to struggle with sounds, more than the meaning of words. This can explain why students with dyslexia are often described as bright and articulate, yet their written work shows little evidence of this.
Poor working memory is a key part – we have to use working memory to match the sound with the letter and then put it all together.
One way to support poor working memory in students with dyslexia is to help them automate some letter sounds so they can use their working memory to focus on the comprehension of the text. WATCH
Women's Health magazine mentioned our research on how natural movement like climbing a tree can improve working memory in the Jan/Feb 2016 issue
A recent survey found that 1 in almost 70 children has autism – with more boys receiving a diagnosis than girls. The CDC also found that we often miss out on identifying these children early on, during a period that can be most helpful to them.
Although Autism is commonly framed as a disability, there is a growing movement that we should perhaps think of it differently.
We typically have the notion that in order to learn we have to sit still – we spend a lot of time in classrooms inculcating the importance of focused attention WHILE being still and not moving.
But now that traditional view is being turned on its head with a recent study of school children. Researchers found that for students with ADHD they learn best when they squirm.
They took a group of 8-12 year old boys and observed them in a classroom with a high-speed camera. They found that for the boys with ADHD – the more activity they showed (like foot-tapping, leg-swinging and chair-scooting) – the better their working memory.
But here is the interesting thing – the same pattern isn’t true for the student without ADHD. The more activity they showed – the WORSE their working memory.
WHY? For the student with ADHD – the movement has a purpose – it helps them focus and stay attentive to a task. In the student with ADHD, certain parts of the brain are less active- like the prefrontal cortex – which is responsible for working memory and attention. The extra physical movement can increase activity and result in improved learning.
So it’s not about reducing movement in those with ADHD but about how to channel it.
What can you do?
It’s not a “let them run around crazily” attitude but allowing them to have movement.
· Let your children learn while on an exercise bike
· Walk around and read.
· Use a wobble board